Glossary of Terms

To find a term in the glossary, click the letter that is the first letter in the word or phrase you want to look up.

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  Symbols

 

A

Active location - the current location of the Phrase box. In Adapt It, each document has many storage locations or piles. These storage locations hold the adaptations in the target language. Only the storage location under the Phrase box is available for work. Moving the Phrase box also moves the active location.

Adapt It - a computer application that assists language translators in the conversion of text from one language to another. Since Adapt It is designed for use with languages that are closely related, the term adaptation rather than translation is used to describe the process.

Adapt It document format (ADT) - the file format used in Adapt It versions 2.4.1i and earlier. All of these Adapt It documents are stored with the filename extension "adt." Version 3.0 and greater use the XML format but can read and use adt as well.

Adaptation - a form of translation that takes advantage of similarities in related languages to speed the translation process. When used as a noun, an adaptation refers to a document that has been adapted from another language.

ANSI - an acronym for American National Standards Institute. This organization defines standards for computing languages. In particular, it extended the 128 characters of the ASCII character set to 256. The ANSI character sets can support a wider variety of human languages than does the ASCII character set--in particular, European and near-Eastern languages. ANSI character sets use all eight bits of a single byte.

Application - a computer program designed to help people to efficiently deal with some human problem involving information. In these Helps, the term refers either to Adapt It (Regular) or Adapt It Unicode.

ASCII - an acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This computer code contains 128 unique values, each representing a number, letter, or formatting symbol of a human language. The ASCII character set supports English explicitly.

Automatic mode - a mode where Adapt It moves the Phrase box through the document, stopping only when the application cannot find an adaptation in the knowledge base, or when more than one adaptation is possible.

B

Back translation - is a method for validating the quality of a translation. A person or persons who knows both the target language and a language known by a translation consultant, retranslates the target translation somewhat literally into the consultant's language.

Backup - a process to make copies of documents and other files. These files "backup" the original and can replace the original should it be damaged or lost.

Binary data - data in the form of a series of ones and zeroes. Computers use binary data internally. Binary data is mostly unintelligible when a human being tries to read it directly.

Bit - an electronic element that a computer uses to represent a one or zero.

Book folder mode - a mode Adapt It uses to store documents into a subfolder of the Adaptations folder. Each subfolder is named after a book of the Bible for easy reference. Book folder mode is optional.

Bundle - the collection of source text words available in the Main window at any one time (generally 300 words). As necessary, Adapt It replaces the current bundle with another bundle.

Byte - a collection of eight bits used by a computer to represent a character such as a letter or number.

C

Cell - the smallest storage element in the layout of an Adapt It document. A cell contains a word, phrase, or empty cell marker. Like a spreadsheet cell, the Adapt It cell has both a horizontal and vertical dimension. Thus, a cell is a member of both a strip and a pile.

Character set - an organization of binary data used by a computer to represent the letters and numbers of a human language. Each letter or number is a character and is represented by a specific combination of bits. Character sets are based on a standard number of bits, generally 7, 8, or 16. A larger number of bits makes it possible to represent a larger number of unique characters can be used in the character set. Common character sets include ASCII, ANSI, and Unicode.

Clipboard - a special area in the memory of the computer used to store data temporarily. Once data is placed in the clipboard, the data then can be retrieved for use in other places. The clipboard works with the Edit menu functions: cut, copy, and paste. In the Main window, these functions work only within the Phrase box.

Configuration file - one of several files Adapt It uses to store the settings that control the user interface and other operations.

Consistent change rule - an instruction to Adapt It to make a predefined change while adapting source text.

Consistent change table - a collection of consistent change rules.

Consistent Changes - an application that uses rules to automatically make regular changes, such as changes to word prefixes and endings.

Copy - a process to duplicate data for storage in another location. Within a document, copied data is placed into the clipboard. In addition, entire documents or files may be copied to other folders or storage devices.

Copy text - a standard MS Windows function that copies selected text from a document or file into the clipboard. The copy command can be found as an icon on the Tool bar, or as an option in the Edit menu.

Corrupt file - a file that has been changed in some way so that it is no longer usable by a program. Files can be corrupted through human error, program error, or when the computer fails in the middle of work.

Cut - a standard MS Windows function that removes selected text from a document or file and places it into the clipboard. The cut command can be found as an icon on the Tool bar, or as an option in the Edit menu.

D

Dialog box - a window that an application opens temporarily in order to either show information you need to know, or to request from you the data the software needs to continue working. This window is often called a dialog because it is a way for you and the computer to "talk."

Dialog box tab - a page marker in a dialog box. These tabs are used when a dialog box must deal with more topics than can be shown on one screen. By clicking on the tab, you see its related page.

Docked toolbar - A docked toolbar is attached to one edge of the program window.

Document - the primary unit of work in Adapt It. The document may represent a book or a chapter. All work is done within a document. Documents are part of a project. In Adapt It, a document is a computer file that contains at a minimum contains source language text. As adaptation occurs the document contains target language text. The document may also contain gloss text, free translations, back translations, and notes.

Drafting mode - the default mode for creating adaptations in Adapt It. In drafting mode, the Phrase box moves automatically through the document inserting previously defined adaptations and skipping locations that already contain adaptations. Drafting mode can be used with Automatic or Single Step modes.

E

Edit text - the process of changing words and phrases in a document. Editing includes changing words, spellings and the arrangement of words or phrases. Adapt It generally uses the Main window and Phrase box for editing.

Empty cell marker - an ellipsis () inserted into the source text instead of words. This marker appears when the target language syntax requires a word but the source language does not. The empty cell marker allows Adapt It to maintain a pile even when there is no source text.

Empty location - an area in Adapt It's Main window in which no target text is visible. An empty location can occur when no adaptation has been made resulting in a hole.

Encoded text file - a text file using an encoding standard. Encoding standards exist to represent the character sets or fonts used in different languages. Adapt It uses one of two encoding standards: ANSI (which includes ASCII) and Unicode. Adapt It (Regular) uses ANSI to represent legacy fonts and computer operating systems. Adapt It Unicode provides the ability to represent both Western and non-western fonts using the Unicode encoding standard.

Encoding standard - a set of rules that guide computer software in the interpretation of numeric values as characters in an encoded text file.

Exegesis - a process by which the meaning of a document is recovered from the original language.

Export - the process of copying a document or file used by one application into a format usable by some other application. For example, Adapt It can export a document into a format that Microsoft Word can read.

Extensible Markup Language (XML) - the file format used in Adapt It versions 3.0 and greater to store documents and Knowledge bases. XML gives Adapt It more flexibility to organize and work with documents and knowledge bases. Previously these files were stored in binary format.

F

File - a collection of data that a computer can read or write. The data in the file must be in a format that the computer can recognize. Applications use files to store data for use.

Filename - the label used by a computer to identify files. The filename has three parts:

Filename extension - the portion of a computer filename that tells the computer what type of data is in the file. The filename extension is usually three characters long and follows a dot "." in the filename.

Filter - an Adapt It technique for the hiding of certain types of information so that it is not normally visible in the adaptation process. Filtering provides a way to hide, without removing, information in the document that does not have to be adapted. Such information is necessary for some other purpose such as publication.

Footer - a line of text that appears at the bottom of a page. Adapt It builds a footer line when it prints or shows a print preview of a document.

Format - a standard way of arranging information. Many computer applications require that their files have a particular format. The file formats generally have a unique filename extension.

Free translation - one method used to validate the quality of a translation. A free translation is restatement of the adaptation in that it is generally less literal than a back translation, and does not necessarily follow the grammatical patterns of the original translation. A free translation can supplement a back translation, because it provides a natural reading of the text. Adapt It has a special mode that allows free translations to be prepared and displayed in their own line along with the source text and target texts in the Main window.

Floating toolbar - A floating toolbar is not attached to the edge of the program window. You can change the shape of some floating toolbars.

Font - a set of formats that can be applied to a character set. A font defines how characters look on the computer screen or printed page. The font defines the shape, size, and color of each character.

G

Gloss text - text of a gloss that can appear in Adapt It. It is used to represent the literal meaning of the source text words and phrases, in a language somewhat different from the source or target text. Gloss text has its own line in each strip in the Main window.

Glossing - a translation technique showing the literal meaning of words, sometimes in a third language to assist the process. Glossing provides an alternate version of the text's original version.

Grayed out - a term to describe the status of menu items or icons. Items that appear to be grayer than other items cannot be used at this time. Grayed out items cannot be used because they do not make sense at this point, or they might cause the application to give undesirable results.

 

H

Hacked legacy font - a term for a font that has been changed to represent the sounds of a previously unwritten language. As a result, the shapes of the letters in the font are unique to this language. Hacking is the process of changing the shapes. Legacy means that the change was done before there was any other way to produce the shape. The Unicode encoding standard system has eliminated the need to create hacked legacy fonts in the future.

Hole - a target text location that does not contain an adaptation. A hole is a place where Adapt It can insert an adaptation.

I

Import - the process of converting a document or file created in one application into a format usable by the current application.

K

Knowledge base - the set of files used by Adapt It to store, organize, and to retrieve adaptations. Adapt It uses two types of knowledge bases: adaptation and glossing.

Knowledge base lookup - the process of searching the Knowledge Base to find if a source text word or phrase is stored there, and if it is, to return its one or more adaptations.

L

Legacy - a term referring to an older way of doing things. For example, versions of Adapt It prior to version 3.0 can be called legacy applications.

 

M

Main window - the user interface where most of the adaptation work takes place. It includes piles, strips, and the Phrase box.

Menu - A menu is a list of commands that is displayed when you click a menu name on a menu bar or other toolbar.

Menu bar - The menu bar is the horizontal bar below the title bar that contains the names of menus.

Merge - the process of combining two or more source texts words into a phrase. You can then adapt the phrase as a whole instead of just single words.

Mode - a restriction on the features or set of features that Adapt It can use at any one time. The modes are intended to promote efficient use of Adapt It for specific tasks. These operational modes are controlled by the Mode bar.

N

Navigation - the process of moving around in a document.

Navigation text - the text in the Main window that identifies the chapter and verse of the source text.

O

 

P

Parsing - the process by which Adapt It takes a file of text data and scans through it to form the document in the Main window. This process isolates each word in the source text, and stores it in a document storage element.

Paste - a standard MS Windows function that places text stored in the clipboard into a document.

Phrase - a group of words that makes sense as a unit. Sometimes, adaptation is better done using a phrase rather than word by word. Adapt It allows adaptations of phrases as well as words.

Phrase box - the primary point of contact between you and Adapt It. You can use the Phrase box to enter new adaptations, revise current adaptations, or replace old adaptations.

Pile - a stack of words or phrases, arranged vertically in the Main window. The words or phrases in each pile all line up on the left. (In languages that read from right to left, they would line up on the right.) Each strip in the Main window consists of multiple piles. See Main window.

Placeholder - an indicator () in the source text showing that there is no corresponding word or phrase for a word or phrase in the target text. A placeholder is used to maintain a source entry in the pile when the target language requires a word or phrase but the source language does not.

Plain text file - a computer file containing text, punctuation, and on occasion standard format markings (SFM) as well. Plain text files contain only letters and symbols that can be typed from the keyboard. Adapt It uses plain text files to create the source text portion of documents. Adapt It can also export plain text files for use by other applications.

Preferences - Adapt It settings that allow you to control how you work with the application. You can change how the source and target texts appear along with many other features. Use the Edit menu to open the Preferences dialog box.

Propagation - a technique used in Adapt It, by which filtered material such as back translations, free translations, and Adapt It notes can be passed on to other translation projects.

Q

 

R

Restore - the process of recreating a document or knowledge base by using a backup file or other files.

Retranslation - when you enter your own translation of a passage rather than accepting the source text produced by Adapt It. Generally, retranslation is done when the syntax or exegesis of the adaptation is incorrect or misleading.

Reviewing mode - a mode where Adapt It moves the Phrase box one location at time and displays the current adaptation. Reviewing mode provides a method to examine each adaptation in a document. Reviewing mode is the opposite of Drafting mode and does not allow the use of Automatic mode nor Single Step mode.

Rich text format (RTF) - a file format used by many word processing programs. Adapt It can export files in RTF so that they can be edited in MS Word in connection with the Word Scripture Template for publishing purposes.

S

Save - a process used to place a copy of a document currently in the computers memory onto the computer's disk. Saving a document assures that it will be available the next time you run the application.

SFM - see Standard Format Markers.

Shortcut key - a key or combination of keys that can be used instead of a menu or toolbar item. For example, you can use Ctrl+X instead of the Cut option in the Edit menu or the cut icon on the Tools bar.

Single Step mode - Single Step mode moves the Phrase box to the next empty location, looks up the source text in the knowledge base, and inserts an adaptation into the Phrase box and then waits for an action from the user.

Source text - the original document or file in a particular language (the source language) that is to be translated or adapted into another language (the target language). Adapt It shows the source text as the first line of text (other than navigation text) in the strips of the Main window. When first input into Adapt It for adaptation, the source text must be in a plain text file. To be most useful, a source text should also be input as a standard format text file.

Source language - the language from which a translation is made. The source text is a text written in the source language.

Splitting a document - the process by which a document can be broken into two or more smaller documents.

Standard format markers (SFM) - combinations of characters embedded into the text to indicate book, chapter, verse, etc. Standard format markers contain a backward slash (\) as the first character. Adapt It uses these markers internally and adds the necessary markers when exporting text files. You normally do not need to type or interact with standard format markers while working with Adapt It.

Standard format text file - is a variation of the plain text file. It includes Standard Format Markers and can be used as a source text file to Adapt It or other translation applications such as Paratext.

Strip - the horizontal arrangement of words and phrases used by Adapt It. At a minimum, a strip consists of a line of source text and a line of target text. Each strip may also contain navigation text and glossing text lines. Within the strip are vertical arrangements of words called piles.

Synchronized scrolling - a feature that allows Adapt It to coordinate with other translation tools such as Paratext and Translator's Workplace. This feature allows you to compare the text as it appears in each of these tools.

T

Target language - the language into which a translation or adaptation is made. It is the language of the target text in the adaptation process.

Target text - the result when the source text has been translated or adapted. The target text is in the target language and appears in Adapt It's Main window. It is located below the source text in each strip.

Toolbar - A toolbar is a row of buttons, boxes, and lists that you use to carry out commands. The Adapt It Main window contains several toolbars allowing you to manage how you work with the application.

Translation - The process of converting the meaning of a document prepared in one language into another language.

U

Unicode - a character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium to represent almost all written languages in the world. The Unicode character repertoire has multiple representation forms, including UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32. Adapt It Unicode uses UTF-16 internally, but saves its external files to UTF-8.

Unicode Transmission Format 8 (UTF-8) - a version of Unicode using eight bits for the character set. UTF-8 is a way to transfer data between computers which internally store data in different ways. Adapt It Unicode writes its XML document and XML knowledge base files in UTF-8.

Unicode Transmission Format 16 (UTF-16) - UTF-16, also known as UCS-2, is an international 16-bit Unicode character set (two bytes per character). Adapt It Unicode uses UTF-16 internally.

Unified standard format marker (USFM) - a structure of standard format markers approved by the United Bible Society for use in its translation and publication projects.

User interface - the portion of an application that allows a human being to use the application to accomplish some task. The user interface generally consists of the visible images on the computer display, and the defined techniques for using the keyboard, mouse or other devices.

V

 

W

Word Scripture Template - a MS Word template that can be attached to RTF documents exported by Adapt It and other applications to enhance the format quality of documents printed from MS Word.

WYSIWYG - WYSIWYG is an abbreviation for What you see is what you get.

X

 

Y

 

Z

 

Symbols

- the symbol used to show that the source text contains a place marker.

<no adaptation> - a visual marker placed in the knowledge base editor so that the user realizes there is an empty word (a word with no characters) at that location in the target text.